Ingredients & Benefits
One of the three nutrient compounds, along with fat and protein, used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Carbohydrates take the form of simple sugars or of more complex forms, such as starches and fiber. Carbohydrates produce 4 calories of energy per gram. When eaten, all carbohydrates are broken down into the sugar glucose.
Dietary protein added to help horses meet their needs, such as muscle maintenance and development, enzyme synthesis and hormone synthesis. Young growing horses and brood mares need additional protein content than most other horses.
Added fat is for energy content. Fat is energy-dense, providing as much energy, pound for pound, than carbohydrates or protein.
Linolenic Acid (Omega-3)/Linolenic Acid (Omega-6)
Each molecule of fat or oil consists of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule. The horse needs a certain amount of fat in its diet, and all fats contain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Horses require these two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the major ones are linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid). These fats are termed essential fatty acids (EFA) because the horse’s metabolism can’t synthesize them; they must be consumed in the diet to be provided. Deficiency of EFA in humans and animals includes hair loss, skin problems and impaired immune function.
Added fiber for energy content. Fiber is important in a supplement and necessary to ensure normal digestive tract functioning.
Protein is made up of amino acids – similar to how a chain is made up of links. There are two basic categories of amino acids: essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids must be provided in the diet, as the horse cannot manufacture them on their own in the digestive tract, where the non-essential amino acids can be manufactured. Without amino acids, all cellular development, respiration, or renewal would cease.
Arginine (MUSCLE MASS BLOOD TRANSPORT & ULCER IMPEDIMENT)
An amino acid that can help the horse by preventing muscle loss and to restore lost muscle. In the muscle, it works as a building block for *creatine. The horse’s body needs creatine to build and maintain healthy, strong muscles. In the arteries, it increases nitric oxide. Nitric oxide helps keep the endothelial cells healthy. Without nitric oxide, the blood vessels become constricted and less flexible. In one study, vessel dilation increased from 2.2% to 8.8% with an L-Arginine supplement. Another study found that taking orally L-Arginine helped arteries dilate better. When the horse’s blood vessels dilate the transport of essential nutritional compounds as well as lactic acid clearance improves. Arginine also benefits in the fight against Gastric Ulcers in horses.
It helps to optimize oxygen uptake and therefore quicker recovery time from strenuous exercise. It is an energy booster and can help to maintain acid balance. It reduces the muscle fatiguing effects of strenuous activity.
Methionine is an amino acid and one of the body’s protein building blocks. It is considered essential in the horse’s diet as it is involved in various parts of the horse’s body chemistry. One such part is in the production of horn for the hoof. In fact there is evidence to show that methionine & biotin are linked chemically. Methionine is often deficient in normally fed horses since it typically only occurs at low levels in many foodstuffs. Methionine also helps assist in the keratinisation of hooves.
Isoleucine is an amino acid that is best known for its ability to increase endurance and help heal and repair muscle tissue and encourage clotting at the site of injury. This amino acid is especially important because its primary function in the body is to boost energy and help the body recover from strenuous physical activity.
Leucine is an essential amino acid. This means that it must be obtained through the diet in adequate quantities to meet the body‘s needs. Leucine is a member of the branched chain amino acid family, along with valine and isoleucine. The three branched-chain amino acids constitute approximately 70 percent of the amino acids in the body proteins. L leucine is obtained by the hydrolysis of protein by pancreatic enzymes during digestion and necessary for optimal growth in the youngest and for the maintenance of nitrogen balance in adults. L-leucine is not only a building block of protein, it is THE key essential amino acid of muscle metabolism.
L-Valine is an essential amino acid that is necessary for smooth nervous system and cognitive functioning. It is one of the three Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), the other two being L-leucine and L-isoleucine. L-Valine cannot be produced by the body and must be ingested through foods or supplements. Amino acids are essential for everyday body functions, as well as for maintaining muscle and regulation of the immune system. L-Valine is not processed by the liver; it is taken up by muscles. Some of the benefits of L-Valine include improvement in insomnia and nervousness. It is also shown to improve disorders of the muscles, and is effective as an appetite suppressant. L-Valine also greatly benefits the regulation of the immune system. Perhaps the biggest benefits are experienced by horses that experience strenuous exercise. L-Valine is essential for muscle tissue repair and muscle metabolism, and also increases exercise endurance.
L-Lysine is a critical building block for all protein in the body. It is an essential amino acid that cannot be created by the body, so it must be obtained by food or supplements. Using a L-Lysine horse supplement at times of stress is key to calcium absorption, building muscle protein, boosting the immune system and supporting the body’s production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. L-Lysine is commonly considered as a helpful nutritional supplement for Herpes Virus outbreaks. One of the most common diseases of the modern day horse is a disease called Equine Rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1 & EHV-4), which is caused by a herpes virus. Rhino is the inflammation of the respiratory tract somewhere between the nose and the lungs. Horses are typically infected at a young age (between 2-4 years), usually during their first respiratory tract infection. Since Rhino is caused by a herpes virus, it lives in the horse’s body and cannot be cured. Outbreaks may also occur during times of high stress to the immune system (i.e. training, hauling, shows, other disease/infections, ulcers etc.). Supplementing the immune system with Lysine can be very beneficial to optimal health and performance. Lysine helps the horse’s body absorb and conserve calcium, and helps in development of collagen and ossification, it aids in the production of antibodies, hormones & enzymes, it stimulates cell division and lysine is utilized in the synthesis of carnitine.
L-Tyrosine is an essential amino acid that is rapidly metabolized and quickly passes the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, it is a precursor for the neurotransmitters dopaine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, better known as adrenaline. These neurotransmitters are an important part of the nervous system, and their concentrations in the body and brain are directly dependent upon dietary L-Tyrosine. The amino acid, tyrosine helps a horse focus and have a feeling of “well being” and be calm without affecting the horse’s ability to compete.
A sulfur-containing amino acid produced by digestion or acid hydrolysis of proteins, sometimes found in the urine and kidneys, and readily reduced to two molecules of cysteine. Cystine is known to promote hoof health.
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (protein building block) in the body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Glutamine is converted to glucose when more glucose is required by the body as an energy source. Glutamine serves as a source of fuel for cells lining the intestines, without it these cells waste away. It is also used by white blood cells and is important for immune function. Glutamine in combination with Cystine promotes the synthesis of Glutathione Peroxidase, a naturally occurring antioxidant. This endogenous antioxidant is key to protecting the equine athlete from exercise-induced free radical damage.
Phenylalanine is considered an essential amino acid because it is a necessary component in equine nutrition and cannot be synthesized by the body. If Phenylalanine is lacking in the body it must be supplemented. Phenylalanine may have the ability to block certain enzymes in the central nervous system that are normally responsible for breaking down natural morphine-like hormones called endorphins and enkephalins. The endorphins and enkephalins act as mild mood elevators and potent analgesic (pain relievers).
An amino acid that improves protein quality and enables full realization of genetic potential for growth. Threonine is also an important constituent of collagen.
Aspartic acid, also known as L-aspartate, is thought to help promote a robust metabolism, and is sometimes used to treat fatigue. Aspartic acid plays an important role in the citric acid cycle, or Krebs cycle, during which other amino acids and biochemical’s, such as asparagine, arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine, are synthesized. Aspartic acid gets its reputation as a treatment for chronic fatigue from the crucial role it plays in generating cellular energy. Aspartic acid moves the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) molecules from the main body of the cell to its mitochondria, where it is used to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the fuel that powers all cellular activity. In short, the more NADH a cell has, the more chemical fuel it produces, and the more energy you have to get through your day. (Some studies have shown that aspartic acid actually increases both stamina and endurance levels in athletes.) In addition, this amino acid helps transport minerals needed to form healthy RNA and DNA to the cells, and strengthens the immune system by promoting increased production of immunoglobulin’s and antibodies (immune system proteins). Aspartic acid keeps your mind sharp by increasing concentrations of NADH in the brain, which is thought to boost the production of neurotransmitters and chemicals needed for normal mental functioning.
It also removes excess toxins from the cells, particularly ammonia, which is very damaging to the brain and nervous system as well as the liver. Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid, which means that the body is able to manufacture its own supply.
Alanine, or L-alanine, is a nonessential amino acid that helps the body convert the simple sugar glucose into energy and eliminate excess toxins from the liver. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are key to building strong, healthy muscles— alanine has been shown to help protect cells from being damaged during intense aerobic activity, when the body cannibalizes muscle protein to help produce energy. Alanine is crucial for preserving balanced levels of nitrogen and glucose in the body, which it does through a series of chemical actions called the alanine cycle. During the alanine cycle, any excess amino acids (proteins) in cells or tissues are transferred to a receptor molecule called pyruvate, which is produced by the breakdown of glucose. The pyruvate is then converted to alanine and transferred to the liver. The liver extracts nitrogen from alanine and converts some of it back into pyruvate, which can then be used to produce more glucose. Any excess nitrogen is then converted into urea and passed out of the body during urination. This cycle, glucose—pyruvate—alanine—pyruvate— glucose, helps supply the body with the energy it needs to support cellular life. It also ensures that a constant supply of pyruvate is available to allow the synthesis of glucose and amino acids in the body.
An amino acid that is essential for tissue growth and repair. Histidine is essential for protein synthesis. It is involved in carnitine and hemoglobin synthesis. Histidine is known to be effective in allergic diseases and tension of the autonomic nervous system resulting in prevention of peptic ulcer. Histidine can maintain erythropoiesis and leucopoiesis – protects from anemia. Histidine also assists in the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.
Proline (JOINT-WOUND HEALING)
An amino acid that is found in most proteins and is a major constituent of collagen. Proline is a precursor of hydroxyproline, which the body incorporates into collagen, tendons, ligaments and the heart muscle. It improves skin texture, helps in the healing of damaged cartilage, and the strengthening of joints, tendons, and heart muscle. Proline also assists in tissue repair after injury and any type of wound healing. Proline is known to be involved in energy production.
Glucosamine Sulfate (JOINT)
The sulfate salt of glucosamine, prepared artificially as a nutritional supplement and as a popular remedy for osteoarthritis. Glucosamine Sulfate is readily used by the body to help promote elasticity in joints and cartilage.
Calcium is probably one of the most well-known minerals in the equine diet. This is due mostly to its interaction with phosphorus in the Ca:P ratio and the big impacts that ratio can have on growing horses (and adult horses too!). Many areas in the equine body require calcium. One of the most important is bone, which is approximately 35% calcium in the horse. Calcium also plays a role in muscle contraction, by activating potassium ion channels. It plays a role in cell membrane functions, allowing certain things to pass through the membrane while restricting others. Calcium also regulates many enzymes in the equine body. Though calcium has many functions in the equine body, approximately 99% of it is found in bone. Supplementing with calcium decreases the lead to a shifting lameness in horses.
Phosphorus is a mineral that is essential to your horse’s health. Like calcium, this mineral is a large part of your horse’s bones. Nearly 14% of your horse’s bones are Phosphorus. It is extensively involved in the production of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), both of which are major energy units for your horse’s cells. Phosphorus also plays a major role in cell membranes, as it is an important part of phospholipids, which make up the membranes. This important mineral can also be found in other important areas, such as nucleic acids (they make up DNA) and phosphoproteins (proteins bound together with phosphoric acid) The addition of extra sodium chloride to your horse’s diet can increase absorption of Phosphorus to approximately 30-60%. Oxalates do not necessarily reduce absorption, but they do decrease retention abilities in the horse. Calcium (Min)/Calcium (Max)/Phosphorus (Min) – Calcium and phosphorus probably are the two most crucial mineral levels to note. These minerals are vital for development, maintenance and repair of the musculoskeletal system. Calcium and phosphorus must be present in sufficient quantities in order to fulfill their functions. Horses in production and growth require more calcium and phosphorus than mature horses at maintenance. High intakes of calcium severely limit the absorption of Phosphorus, due to the fact that these two minerals compete directly for absorption in the small intestine. Therefore, the more calcium that is absorbed, the less phosphorus can be absorbed, and vice versa. This is one of the many reasons that the calcium:phosphorus ratio is so important in horse diets.
Sodium is a very important mineral in the horse’s diet and plays an important part in the nervous system by facilitating the movement of signals throughout the system. Through action potentials, sodium helps move the signals, which travel through excitable cells. When a signal moves through a neuron (a nervous system cell), it is moved by creating what is called an action potential. An action potential is nothing more than creating an extremely positive charge that moves from cell to cell. When an action potential starts, sodium (which is stored outside the axon — a part of the cell) is pumped into the axon, while potassium is pumped out of the axon. This creates a voltage change, which creates the impulse that allows the cells to send signals throughout your horse’s body. Through various pumps and channels that are embedded in the membranes of every cell in your horse’s body, sodium transports substances (glucose, amino acids and other nutrients that make it across the membrane) that would not otherwise be able to get across the membrane. These substances are generally water-soluble, as fat-soluble substances can get across the membranes because the membranes are made of lipids. Sodium also maintains Acid-Base Balance as a Major Electrolyte. Sodium is one of the major electrolytes, and as such, plays a huge role in the acid-base balance of cells inside your horse’s body. It also is very involved in the osmotic regulation of your horse’s body fluids. The more sodium there is in an area, the more water will be drawn to that area. By regulating the content of sodium in the kidneys, digestive system, and cellular fluid, your horse can regulate how much water is present in those areas.
Magnesium (STRESS-CELL CATALYST)
Magnesium is an essential mineral. In his muscles, it attaches to ATP so that the ATP can be used by the muscle cells. If the magnesium is not present, the ATP cannot be used, and the muscle would not be able to generate energy to carry out any functions. It also plays roles in your horse’s blood, as well as acting as an activator for many enzymes throughout the body. It is necessary for many of the enzymes that work with ATP. Magnesium is often used to help keep horses calm. Extreme nervousness can be an indicator of a magnesium deficiency. Magnesium is a mineral that is critical for energy production and metabolism, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone mineralization. Magnesium status is also important for regulation of calcium balance through its effects on the parathyroid gland.
Potassium is one of the macro minerals that your horse needs. It is one of the most important minerals throughout the body. As the major intracellular cation (an ion with a positive charge that is found inside cells), it plays a huge role in maintaining acid-base balance. It is also essential in maintaining osmotic balance…or the amount of water that is inside cells. However, its biggest job is to be involved in skeletal muscle excitability through potassium ion channels.
It works as the major anion (negatively charged molecule) in your horse’s body. In the anion form it is called chloride. It is found in the extracellular fluid, or fluid outside cells. Here it helps regulate the acid-base balance as well as the osmotic pressure. Chloride is an essential component of bile, which is made by the liver and secreted into the large intestine to help with digestion of fat. It is also important to help form hydrochloric acid, another important secretion for digestion.
It keeps your horse’s blood cells from sticking together and creating clots in his blood vessels. Copper is also an essential nutrient needed by living organisms. Essential nutrients must be provided by diet. The body cannot manufacture copper internally. Development, repair, and maintenance of tendons, ligaments, joints and other connective tissues require copper. It is also important to brain function, the manufacturing of red blood cells, reproduction, pigmentation of the hair coat, and supporting antioxidant activity. Copper is an antioxidant. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals before they can damage the horse’s body tissues. Free radicals are molecules that have been damaged by chemicals, drugs, or other impurities. These damaged molecules attack the healthy body tissues, which can cause infection and inflammation.
Iron is essential for your horse to be able to transport oxygen throughout his blood. It makes up the center of hemoglobin, which is the oxygen transport molecule in blood. It is also present in myoglobin, which helps get oxygen into your horse’s muscles.
Manganese (DIGESTION NUTRIENT UPTAKE)
It is important in cartilage and bone development and mineral utilization. It is also required to activate a number of important enzymes, and is essential in the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids.
Silicon (JOINT & BONE GROWTH)
Silicon is a scientifically discovered essential nutrient that studies indicate has promising benefits when added to the equine diet. Silicon plays a role in the development of new bone, and it is involved with the calcification process. Silicon appears to be exceptionally critical in the young, growing animal when the skeleton is undergoing rapid development. Silicon is also a promising method to aid in the prevention of injuries to equine athletes.
Iodine is important in the production of the hormone thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Both are thyroid hormones. And they aren’t just any thyroid hormones…they are the two major hormones that regulate basal metabolism. In tissues throughout your horse’s body, as well as in the thyroid gland itself, thyroxine is turned into triiodothyronine. If either of these hormones are found in excess, the amount of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) is decreased. Not only is TSH decreased, but also the body’s basic metabolic rate is increased.
Vitamin A (EMBRYO & IMMUNE)
The main role, and most well known, is the role it plays in night vision. One form of A combines with opsin to produce rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is the visual pigment that helps recognize the presence of light energy and transform it into a signal that travels the nervous system. This nervous system signal is then what allows the horse to see. However, A also has other functions in the horse. It regulates gene expression during cell differentiation. Due to this regulation, it is very important in reproduction and the creation of the embryo. Lastly, A is important to help maintain the innate and adaptive immune response to infection.
Vitamin D (BONE-JOINT)
Vitamin D, as one of the fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body. Its main role in the body is calcium homeostasis, or keeping the calcium levels at a constant level. It also influences the growth and differentiation of cells to some degree. When managing the calcium levels, D most often works in the digestive tract. It helps calcium to be absorbed from the intestine and helps it be reabsorbed from the kidney. However, it also helps calcium to be released from bones, as well as be taken back up into bones. This is why most calcium supplements on the market also contain Vitamin D.
In the horse diet, D is relatively low.
Vitamin E (INFLAMMATION)
Vitamin E is another one of the fat-soluble vitamins. Its primary function in your horse’s body is as an anti-oxidant. It is fat-soluble, so it can easily penetrate cell membranes (which are made up of fat, or lipids) and serves as one of the main antioxidants that protects these membranes.v
Synthetic folate. It is involved in reactions necessary for the creation of DNA as well as methionine (an important amino acid). Because both DNA and methionine are needed in large quantities when cell growth or turnover (old cells being replaced by new cells) are taking place, it is vital for tissues in these states. Examples would be fetal growth and development, tissue repair after an injury or other trauma, and constant regeneration of the digestive tract lining.v
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) is one of those very important B vitamins. It is a precursor to two coenzymes. Coenzymes are molecules that carry chemical compounds between two enzymes — very important to transport many substances in the body. Being a precursor simply means that the equine body uses B2 to make the coenzymes. The two coenzymes that B2 is a precursor of are: Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) and Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN). Both FAD and FMN are part of reduction-oxidation reactions. Reduction-oxidation reactions (also known as redox reactions) are simply reactions that take place to exchange electrons between molecules (like when carbon is oxidized to make carbon dioxide). Redox reactions are essential for most life processes, including digestion of feed. The particular redox reactions that FAD and FMN are involved in are: The production of ATP (energy for cells…essential for life!), Drug metabolism and Lipid metabolism.v
Niacin (also known as B3) is one of those vitamins that is essential to almost everything your horse does. It is involved in numerous oxidation-reduction cycles throughout the body. Additionally, one of the co-enzymes it creates is essential in DNA processing, cell differentiation, and calcium mobilization from cells.
Choline is an essential material for building and maintaining cell structure. It is a constituent of lecithins, which are fatty substances (lipids) with one of the three fatty acid molecules replaced by choline, which is joined to the glycerol part of the molecule through a phosphoric acid linkage. The remaining two fatty acid molecules can vary according to the availability of different fatty acids in the diet and in the body. This leads to a range of different lecithins depending on fatty acid inclusions. Lecithins are present in every plant and animal cell and play a fundamental role in cellular structure and activity. Choline plays an essential role in fat metabolism in the liver. It functions by preventing abnormal accumulations of fat (fatty livers) by converting excess fat into lecithin or by increasing the utilization of fatty acids in the liver. A third function is as a constituent of acetylcholine, which makes possible the transmission of nerve impulses. It is also a methyl group donator. The methyl groups used by folic acid or vitamin B12 during transmethylation are obtained from materials such as choline, betaine and methionine. Such materials tend to be mutually replaceable in this role. Since this is only one of the functions of choline a dietary supply is essential because these compounds cannot substitute for choline in its other functions.
This is vitamin B6. A red blood cell is useless without hemoglobin. That’s because hemoglobin is the part of a red blood cell that oxygen attaches to. Research published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry discovered that vitamin B6 is essential for hemoglobin to form. In other words, if your horse doesn’t get enough vitamin B6, your horse’s red blood cells can’t carry the oxygen it needs.
It is part of co-enzyme A, which is a very important complex that is a crucial part in metabolic pathways involving: carbohydrates, fats, lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, porphyrins (very important molecules in the body) and hemoglobin. So pretty much anything your horse’s body does is going to involve pantothenic acid to some degree. It is involved in creating new blood cells, walking across the pasture to you, digesting food that your horse just ate. Almost every action. Since is such an important molecule, it is reassuring to know that pantothenic acid is found in significant quantities in most parts of your horse’s diet. Even more reassuring is that despite no set dietary requirement for horses, no deficiency or toxicity has ever been reported in horses, even in growing ponies.
Biotin is a vitamin essential for many functions in a horse’s body, including: fatty acid synthesis, protein and energy metabolism and cell proliferation. Biotin is helpful for hoof health.
Vitamin B12 is an essential part of several enzyme systems. Most of these involve the transfer or synthesis of single-carbon units. Thus, vitamin B12 is responsible for a number of basic metabolic functions in association with other vitamins such as folic acid. The most important tasks relate to the metabolism of proteins but it also features in the metabolism of fats and of carbohydrates. Under normal feed conditions vitamin B12 is probably linked to peptides or even to protein. This link is broken during digestion. The released vitamin B12 molecule cannot be absorbed through the intestinal wall without a carrier. Various products, collectively known as the intrinsic factor, have been shown to carry vitamin B12. The physiological activities of vitamin B12 are very closely inter-related with those of folic acid but the actual mechanisms are poorly understood. It is known that one activity is the formation of labile methyl groups which play a significant part in the biosynthesis of methionine which, in turn, affects the synthesis of body proteins. There is good reason to believe that the impairment of protein synthesis is the principal cause of the growth depression which is frequently observed in animal’s deficient of vitamin B12. The cobalt atom appears to be responsible for the transmethylating capacity of cobalamin because the methyl- cobalt derivative is formed. One interesting and important function of vitamin B12 is the metabolism of propionate products of dietary or metabolic origin. Propionate is converted into succinate in the Kreb’s cycle. Propionate contains three, and succinate four, carbon atoms. The extra methyl group is supplied through methylmalonyl-CoA which is activated by methylmalonyl-CoA isomerase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme. Vitamin B12 appears to exert a calming influence on horses, particularly those which are fresh or frisky, or generally excitable. This hyperactive condition may be due to a generous supply of biotin (vitamin H) and 1 mg/day of vitamin B12 can act as an ”antidote”.
Chia Seed (ULCERS-INFLAMMATION-HYDRATION)
Chia has the substance essential to cell life—a balanced property of giving out (nutrients) and readily taking up (debris). Chia is an excellent source of EFA’s (essential oils), antioxidants, minerals, protein, soluble (mucilage) fiber and low NSC (non- structural carbohydrate). Chia is soothing to the gut with a mucilaginous gel, which eases inflammation caused by sand and ulcers. Chia acts as a barrier between the carbohydrates and the enzymes of the stomach. The slower metabolism results in less build-up of acid in the stomach. Horses are prone to ulcers because they constantly produce stomach acid. Chia is a very low NSC (non-structural carbohydrate). Chia forms a mucilaginous gel in the digestive tract and creates a physical barrier between carbohydrates and the digestive enzymes that break them down, thus slowing the conversion of carbohydrates into sugar. The slower metabolism results in a more even blood sugar level, a huge advantage for Insulin-Resistant horses. Chia provides greater efficiency in the utilization of body fluids and absorption of nutrients, helping to maintain electrolyte balance. Fluid and electrolyte imbalances occur when large amounts of fluids are lost resulting from diarrhea, colic, fever, and ulcers or sweating. Extracellular fluid loss occurs in these conditions. Intercellular fluid then shifts out of cells to compensate, causing abnormal distribution of electrolytes resulting in cellular malfunction.v
Chia seeds give extensive hydration. Hydrophilic colloids, (a watery, gelatinous, sticky substance) form the underlying elements of all living cells. Chia Seeds contain all nine essential amino acids for a complete protein. Chia has 19-23% protein content, which is more protein than traditional grains such as wheat (13.7%), rice (6.5%), corn (9.4%), barley (12.5%) and oats (16.9%). Research performed on Chia’s digestibility and biological value has proven that Chia is an excellent protein source. There are no limitations in Chia’s amino acid content, therefore, it can be included in the horse diet to improve protein balance by itself or when mixed with other grains. Chia is highly enriched with antioxidants. Antioxidants are a group of vegetal elements that can block the harmful effects of these so-called “free radicals.” The most important antioxidants in Chia are chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid as well as myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol flavonols. These antioxidants have been shown to provide protection to lipids, proteins, and DNA from oxidation, and work to inhibit lipid per oxidation with strong free radical and superoxide scavenging activity. They are more effective than vitamin C and vitamin E in their antioxidant properties (Kweon, Hwang, and Sung, 2001).v
High in omega-3. It can help reduce inflammation, which can relieve symptoms associated with sweet itch and other skin conditions. It can also alleviate symptoms of allergies. Because of its anti-inflammatory properties, it also helps in cases of arthritis or joint stiffness. In some cases, it helps so much that it can replace the use of commercial joint supplements or regular doses of bute. It also boosts the immune system and can help regulate thyroid function, making it an ideal supplement for metabolic horses as well as aging horses.
Flax Oil (HOOF-BONE-JOINT – Flaxseed oil is very high in Omega-3 called alphalinolenic (ALA), which is one of three essential fatty acids that your horse needs and cannot make for itself. Omega-3s are needed by every cell in the body. Among other things, an ample supply helps ensure that cell membranes stay flexible so that cells can get nutrients easily. Your horse can use ALA to make all the other omega-3 fatty acids that it needs, including both EPA and DHA. Another advantage of getting omega-3s from the ALA in flax oil is that your horse does not create more EPA and DHA than it needs. Therefore, ingesting too much EPA/DHA is not an issue. Short term benefits for your horse include improved skin and coat condition, fewer skin allergies and fighting sweet itch. The long term benefits are numerous and include improved hoof quality, increased bone density, improved joint health, reduced muscle soreness, increased tissue elasticity which reduces the incidence of EIPM (nasal bleeding) in performance horses. In addition, mares’ milk which is higher in Omega 3 can result in healthier foals with a higher resistance to infection.
Benefits of Flax Oil for broodmares- Previous research has demonstrated that offering Omega 3 fatty acids in the diet of mares will result in the mare cycling sooner and more consistently. This is due to the enhanced hormonal profile. It is recommended that the diet of pregnant mares be supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids, allowing for the transfer of these beneficial fatty acids to the foal in utero.
Benefits of Flax Oil for stallions- Studies in Colorado University have shown that breeding stallions who were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids (specifically the long chain fatty acid DHA) have shown increased sperm concentration.
Benefits of Flax Oil for High Performance Horses- Research has demonstrated that products containing the essential fatty acids present in flax oil supplemented in the diet of performance horses has the following benefits: Allows for less soreness and stiffness; Aids in quicker recovery from muscle inflammation; Induces earlier shedding and hoof durability; Normalise and rebalance certain prostaglandins which in turn reduce inflammation Eliminate lactic acid more readily. Performance horses depend heavily on anaeroboc glycolysis for energy consumption and fatigue is most likely to result from lactic acid accumulation. Flax Oil reduces this build up and also balances the increased production of the enzymes and hormones involved in the performance, which increases speed and endurance.
Benefits of Flax Oil for the Immune System of your horse- Flax Oil has been shown to reduce equine endotoxemia. This inhibits the occurrence of colic, laminitis, organ failure and other systemic conditions. Clinical studies have shown that flax oil fed in the daily ration over a period of time will have a therapeutic effect on chronic inflammatory and allergic conditions such as arthritis, lupus and ulcerative Colitis.
Rice Protein Concentrate
Rice bran is high in fat and energy, and is a useful feed for adding weight to horses and improving coat condition.
Sunflower Seed (COAT-WEIGHT)
Black Oil Sunflower Seeds (BOSS) are packed full of vitamins and minerals. Black Oil Sunflower Seeds have two visible positive effects on horses: Great SHINY coats and Weight gain.
Made from brown rice. The husk is removed and the raw rice is ground. Rice flour is a particularly good substitute for wheat flour when allergies prevent its use.
Cane Molasses (ENDURANCE)
“Energy out should equal energy in.” The use of molasses in livestock feeds dates back into the 19th Century. Sugarcane molasses contains nutritionally significant levels of calories, the essential minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, chloride, and iron, and the B vitamin biotin. The low levels of protein and very low levels of phosphorus, fiber, fat soluble vitamins, and most trace minerals give it an “environmentally friendly” ingredient characteristic.
Aquamin is a marine-derived, multimineral that aids bone mineralization by depositing not only calcium but also magnesium, manganese, barium, strontium and iron. Aquamin enhances mineralization of osteoblast cells in-vitro. Data suggest Aquamin increases bone turnover and may aid in repairing damaged bone and preventing skeletal injuries in horses. Aquamin has anti-inflammatory effects on cortical glial-enriched cultures.
Used internally as a periodic cleanse of the digestive tract leaving a healthier overall intestinal environment.
Synthetic Vitamin E that is a powerful antioxidant.
Added natural preservative for freshness and enhanced taste.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) (IMMUNE-STRESS)
It is a fairly simple chemical, similar to sugars such as glucose, with a chain of six carbon atoms. Ascorbic acid is transported to all living cells for use in important oxidation/reduction reactions in cell metabolism. It is essential for the formation and maintenance of function of the intercellular substances of skeletal tissues. It also exerts a stimulating action on immune response mechanisms. According to recent research, it plays an essential role in transporting iron ions from plasma to storage sites.Very young foals produce very little ascorbic acid and benefit from supplementation. Performance horses under stress may also have a dietary requirement but the efficiency of absorption from the gut is very limited. Supplementation may have to be given to active horses to ensure that adequate amounts are absorbed. Horses may require a vitamin C supplement to make up the shortfall in endogenous production under inclement conditions. Some research work suggests that excitable horses are over-stressed by training and racing and cease to produce any ascorbic acid. Tests have shown that they may benefit from daily supplementation.
Chromium Yeast is an excellent bio-available source of Chromium, which may be used to support healthy glucose tolerance and helps maintain normal blood sugar levels. Chromium is an important cofactor for insulin function as it has been shown to support healthy insulin sensitivity. Chromium may also help promote healthy body composition.
Organic selenium is produced by yeast, while inorganic selenium is salt-based. The yeast form of selenium is similar to that which horses would consume in a natural grazing situation. Because of its more natural form, horses absorb and retain more organic selenium in their tissues, ensuring it is readily available when needed. Organic selenium yeast is absorbed differently from its inorganic counterpart so it is a safer means of supplementation.
L-Carnitine Tartrate is a natural substance that is non-toxic without contraindications and adverse interactions, and well-tolerated by horses. L-Carnitine Tartrate makes a varied contribution, directly and indirectly to normal functioning of the metabolism. It can improve vitality, help prevent heart problems, and help slow down the aging process.
Ornithine Ketoglutarate (OKG) is a salt that is formed by the combination of two molecules of ornithine (an amino acid) and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. OKG is not found in the body, and must be consumed through supplements. OKG is effective for increasing muscle mass, strength and hormone levels. OKG Ornithine Ketoglutarate has shown significant effectiveness for improving protein retention, wound repair and immune function. It appears that taking OKG helps decrease the breakdown of muscle protein and increases protein synthesis. It is also beneficial for promoting wound healing. Ornithine Ketoglutarate achieves this by encouraging the secretion of insulin and human growth hormone. It also encourages arginine and glutamine production.
Zinc is an essential trace element and is a component of about 300 metalloenzyme systems. Many of these enzymes play key roles in extra-cellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, connective tissue repair, inflammation, and cell proliferation.
A white powder, water-insoluble in the presence of sodium citrate; used in medicine. Magnesium citrate offers anti-inflammatory benefits.
Copper plays vital roles in several physiological and biochemical metabolic ent in many enzymes. Gluconic acid is a noncorrosive, nonvolatile, nontoxic, mild organic acid. It imparts a refreshing sour taste.
Cobalt, one of the micro minerals, is important for blood cell formation. The microbes in your horse’s digestive system, particularly the cecum and large intestine, use the Co from your horse’s diet to convert it to Vitamin B12. This vitamin is then used in conjunction with iron and copper in the formation and maintenance of blood cells.
A vitamin produced by the body when exposed to ultraviolet light or obtained from dietary sources. Vitamin D3 is a hormone that has an important role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
Iodine Chelate (HOOF-COAT-GROWTH)
A trace mineral that helps detoxify the body of heavy metals. Dl-Methionine – Amino acids like DL-methionine are the building blocks of protein. DLmethionine is also the precursor of every peptide synthesized by the organism and is particularly involved in keratin synthesis, component of hair and hoof. Moreover, one of the important functions of methionine is its ability to be a supplier of sulfur and other compounds required by the body for normal metabolism and growth.
The bitartrate salt of choline.
Calcium salt of Pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid, the amide of beta-alanine and pantoic acid, is a B complex vitamin acting as a precursor in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A, involved in the metabolism as an antioxidant to breakdown many biochemical substances (fatty acids, steroids, phospholipids, heme, amino acids, and carbohydrates). The adrenal gland is an important site of pantothenic acid activity.
Aloe Vera Concentrate (ULCER INFLAMMATION)
Aloe vera concentrate assists with inflammation & ulcers. Inflammation is common with ulcers (and colic). Herbalists define aloe vera as cold and moist; therefore it is used for any “itis” (inflammatory disorder). During fever, aloe vera can promote cooling of the system by eliminating heat from the intestines. Aloe vera gel works great for internal ulcers as well as decubital ulcers (bed sores/open sore other than a wound).
Vitamin B12 is an essential part of several enzyme systems. Most of these involve the transfer or synthesis of single-carbon units. Thus, vitamin B12 is responsible for a number of basic metabolic functions in association with other vitamins such as folic acid. The most important tasks relate to the metabolism of proteins but it also features in the metabolism of fats and of carbohydrates.
Thiamine forms an essential part of several enzyme systems. These mainly involve the release of energy from absorbed or stored carbohydrates and fats. There are three main routes for releasing energy: glycolysis — for example, the release of energy in working muscles; the citric acid cycle which occurs within cells; and the pentose phosphate cycle which takes place mainly in the liver, kidneys, adrenal cortex, mammary glands and blood erythrocytes. Enzymes are responsible for each of the chemical changes. Increasing the thiamine supply above the basic minimum nutritional requirement can have an apparent calming effect on an excitable horse.
Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6) is involved in many reactions, including nervous system function, niacin synthesis, immune response, lipid metabolism, gene expression and hormone modulation.
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